The genus was introduced in 1828 by C.G. Ehrenberg (in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1828), originally as a subgenus of the genus Androctonus. It was finally elevated to genus rank by M. Vachon in 1949. The genus was long considered to be monotypic, containing a single species, L. quinquestriatus, but research since 2002 has shown that there are indeed several species.
Currently five species are recognized within this genus, but their validity is under discussion. F. Kovařík (2007) suspected that L. jordanensis and L. savanicola are possible synonyms of L. quinquestriatus.
- Leiurus abdullahbayrami Yagmur, Koc & Kunt, 2009
- Leiurus jordanensis Lourenço, Modry & Amr, 2002
- Leiurus nasheri Kovařík, 2007
- Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1828) (type species)
- Leiurus savanicola Lourenço, Qi & Cloudsley-Thompson, 2006
Members of Leiurus are generally moderately sized scorpions that show a typical buthid habitus with gracile pedipalp chelae and a slender metasoma. The vesicle is bulbous and proportionally large in some species. The cephalothorax and mesosoma shows distinct granulation. Characteristically the tergites of the mesosoma bear five distinct, longitudinal carinae (ridges). The base color is generally yellow with brown to blackish areas extending over various parts of the animal, depending on species.
The venom of L. quinquestriatus is among the most potent scorpion toxins. It severely affects the cardiac and pulmonary systems. Human fatalities, often children, have been confirmed by clinical reports. The median lethal dose of venom (LD50) for this species was measured at 0.16 - 0.50 mg/kgmice. The toxicity of the other species is also potentially high to life-threatening, but reliable data are currently not available.